Is the Lexham English Bible a Trustworthy Bible?

BroRandoBroRando Posts: 477
edited November 15 in Biblical Studies

If you found out the Bible you are using removed Christ from scripture how would you feel? Duped? Mislead? Deceived? The Deceiver and AntiChist is hard at work.

Let's visit the scripture in question:

"and Jesus healed many who had various diseases. He also drove out many demons, but he would not let the demons speak because they knew who he was." Mark 1:34 LEB

Let's take alook at the Greek Translation:

Did you see "to be Christ." was removed from this inspired scripture? To be fair, it seems that ALMOST ALL of the Bibles on Biblehub removed CHRIST from the scripture.

Let's give Credit to Bibles whom gave witness to the Christ.

Literal Emphasis Translation

And He healed many having badly of various diseases, and He cast out many demons. And He did not permit the demons to speak because they knew Him to be Christ.

Worrell New Testament

And He healed many that were sick with many kinds of diseases, and cast out many demons; and He did not permit the demons to speak, because they knew Him [to be the Christ].


We originate with God. Whoever comes to know God listens to us; whoever does not originate with God does not listen to us. By this we distinguish the inspired statement of truth from the inspired statement of error. (1 John 4:6)

As the Last Days of Satan's System of things come to the end. Christians can expect Satan and his hordes to mount ficious attacks as they did when they burned people at a starous for translating and reading the Bible.


Who is the liar but the one who denies that Jesus is the Christ? This is the antichrist, the one who denies the Father and the Son. (1 John 2:22) Only the anitchrist would remove CHRIST from scripture. So be careful from those who support Satan's tatics. The demons are upset and I aim to stir up that hornets nest and expel them.

"For Many Deceivers have gone out into the world, those not acknowledging Jesus Christ as coming in the flesh. This is the Deceiver and the Antichrist. (2 John 1:7)

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Comments

  • To me, the Lexham English Bible (LEB) is a readable Trustworthy Bible (from interlinear literal translations), especially for use in parallel with original language Bibles. Faithlife Corporation owns Lexham Press, which published the Lexham English Bible (LEB), whose Preface is:

    With approximately one hundred different English translations of the Bible already published, the reader may well wonder why yet another English version has been produced. Those actually engaged in the work of translating the Bible might answer that the quest for increased accuracy, the incorporation of new scholarly discoveries in the fields of semantics, lexicography, linguistics, new archaeological discoveries, and the continuing evolution of the English language all contribute to the need for producing new translations. But in the case of the Lexham English Bible (LEB), the answer to this question is much simpler; in fact, it is merely twofold.

    First, the LEB achieves an unparalleled level of transparency with the original language text because the LEB had as its starting point the Lexham Hebrew–English Interlinear Bible and the Lexham Greek–English Interlinear New Testament. It was produced with the specific purpose of being used alongside the original language text of the Bible. Existing translations, however excellent they may be in terms of English style and idiom, are frequently so far removed from the original language texts of Scripture that straightforward comparison is difficult for the average user. Of course distance between the original language text and the English translation is not a criticism of any modern English translation. To a large extent this distance is the result of the philosophy of translation chosen for a particular English version, and it is almost always the result of an attempt to convey the meaning of the original in a clearer and more easily understandable way to the contemporary reader. However, there are many readers, particularly those who have studied some biblical Hebrew, Aramaic, or Greek, who desire a translation that facilitates straightforward and easy comparisons between the translation and the original language text. The ability to make such comparisons easily in software formats like Logos Bible Software makes the need for an English translation specifically designed for such comparison even more acute.

    Second, the LEB is designed from the beginning to make extensive use of the most up-to-date lexical reference works available. For the Old Testament this is primarily The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament (HALOT), and for New Testament this is primarily the third edition of Walter Bauer’s A Greek–English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (BDAG). Users can be assured that the LEB as a translation is based on the best scholarly research available. The Hebrew text on which the LEB Old Testament is based is that of Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. The Greek text on which the LEB New Testament is based is that of The Greek New Testament: SBL Edition (SBLGNT), a new edition produced by Michael W. Holmes in conjunction with the Society of Biblical Literature and Logos Bible Software. In its evaluation of textual variation, the SBLGNT uses modern text-critical methodology along with guidance from the most recently available articles, monographs, and technical commentaries to establish the text of the Greek New Testament.

    Naturally, when these two factors are taken into consideration, it should not be surprising that the character of the LEB as a translation is fairly literal. This is a necessary by-product of the desire to have the English translation correspond transparently to the original language text. Nevertheless, a serious attempt has been made within these constraints to produce a clear and readable English translation instead of a woodenly literal one.

    There are three areas in particular that need to be addressed to make a translation like the LEB more accessible to readers today, while at the same time maintaining easy comparison with the original language text. First, differences in word order have to be addressed. In this regard, the LEB follows standard English word order, not the word order of biblical Hebrew, Aramaic, or Koiné Greek. Anyone who needs to see the word order of the original languages can readily consult the Lexham Hebrew–English Interlinear Bible or the Lexham Greek–English Interlinear New Testament, which contain a sequence line which gives this information. Second, some expressions in biblical languages are idiomatic, so that a literal translation would be meaningless or would miscommunicate the true meaning. The LEB uses ⌊lower corner⌋ brackets to indicate such expressions, with a literal rendering given in a note. Third, words which have no equivalent in the original language text must sometimes be supplied in the English translation. Because the LEB is designed to be used alongside the original language texts of Scripture, these supplied words are indicated with italics. In some cases the need for such supplied words is obvious, but in other cases where it is less clear a note has been included.

    Finally, the reader should remember that any Bible translation, to be useful to the person using it, must actually be read. We encourage every user of the LEB, whether reading it alongside the original languages text or not, to remember that once we understand the meaning of a biblical text we are responsible to apply it first in our own lives, and then to share it with those around us.

    The Editors


     Harris, W. H., III, Ritzema, E., Brannan, R., Mangum, D., Dunham, J., Reimer, J. A., & Wierenga, M. (Eds.). (2012). The Lexham English Bible. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press.

    Mark 1:22-34 LEB (with Hebrew word for Jewish usual translation of אלהים as God in LXX) => And they were amazed at his teaching, because he was teaching them like one who had authority, and not like the scribes. And so then there was a man in their synagogue with an unclean spirit, and he cried out, saying, “Leave us alone, Jesus the Nazarene! Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are — the Holy One of אלהים God!” And Jesus rebuked him, saying, “Be silent, and come out of him!” And after convulsing him and crying out with a loud voice, the unclean spirit came out of him. And they were all amazed, so that they began to discuss with one another, saying, “What is this? A new teaching with authority! He even commands the unclean spirits and they obey him.” And the report about him then went out everywhere in the whole surrounding region of Galilee. And so then he departed from the synagogue and came into the house of Simon and Andrew with James and John. Now Simon’s mother-in-law was lying down, suffering with a fever, and at once they told him about her. And he came and raised her up by taking hold of her hand, and the fever left her, and she began to serve them. Now when it was evening, when the sun had set, they began bringing to him all those who were sick and those who were demon-possessed. And the whole town was gathered together at the door. And he healed many who were sick with various diseases and expelled many demons. And he did not permit the demons to speak, because they knew him.

    Mark 1:22-34 (SBLGNT) => καὶ ἐξεπλήσσοντο ἐπὶ τῇ διδαχῇ αὐτοῦ, ἦν γὰρ διδάσκων αὐτοὺς ὡς ἐξουσίαν ἔχων καὶ οὐχ ὡς οἱ γραμματεῖς. καὶ εὐθὺς ἦν ἐν τῇ συναγωγῇ αὐτῶν ἄνθρωπος ἐν πνεύματι ἀκαθάρτῳ καὶ ἀνέκραξεν λέγων· Τί ἡμῖν καὶ σοί, Ἰησοῦ Ναζαρηνέ; ἦλθες ἀπολέσαι ἡμᾶς; οἶδά σε τίς εἶ, ὁ ἅγιος τοῦ θεοῦ. καὶ ἐπετίμησεν αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς λέγων· Φιμώθητι καὶ ἔξελθε ἐξ αὐτοῦ. καὶ σπαράξαν αὐτὸν τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἀκάθαρτον καὶ φωνῆσαν φωνῇ μεγάλῃ ἐξῆλθεν ἐξ αὐτοῦ. καὶ ἐθαμβήθησαν ἅπαντες, ὥστε συζητεῖν πρὸς ἑαυτοὺς λέγοντας· Τί ἐστιν τοῦτο; διδαχὴ καινή· κατʼ ἐξουσίαν καὶ τοῖς πνεύμασι τοῖς ἀκαθάρτοις ἐπιτάσσει, καὶ ὑπακούουσιν αὐτῷ. καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ἡ ἀκοὴ αὐτοῦ εὐθὺς πανταχοῦ εἰς ὅλην τὴν περίχωρον τῆς Γαλιλαίας. Καὶ εὐθὺς ἐκ τῆς συναγωγῆς ἐξελθόντες ἦλθον εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν Σίμωνος καὶ Ἀνδρέου μετὰ Ἰακώβου καὶ Ἰωάννου. ἡ δὲ πενθερὰ Σίμωνος κατέκειτο πυρέσσουσα, καὶ εὐθὺς λέγουσιν αὐτῷ περὶ αὐτῆς. καὶ προσελθὼν ἤγειρεν αὐτὴν κρατήσας τῆς χειρός· καὶ ἀφῆκεν αὐτὴν ὁ πυρετός, καὶ διηκόνει αὐτοῖς. Ὀψίας δὲ γενομένης, ὅτε ἔδυ ὁ ἥλιος, ἔφερον πρὸς αὐτὸν πάντας τοὺς κακῶς ἔχοντας καὶ τοὺς δαιμονιζομένους· καὶ ἦν ὅλη ἡ πόλις ἐπισυνηγμένη πρὸς τὴν θύραν. καὶ ἐθεράπευσεν πολλοὺς κακῶς ἔχοντας ποικίλαις νόσοις, καὶ δαιμόνια πολλὰ ἐξέβαλεν, καὶ οὐκ ἤφιεν λαλεῖν τὰ δαιμόνια, ὅτι ᾔδεισαν αὐτόν.


    Society of Biblical Languages Greek New Testament has an Apparatus, which shows Greek variations in Mark 1:22-34

    23 εὐθὺς WH NA28 ] – Treg RP

    24 Τί WH Treg NA28 ] Ἔα τί RP

    26 φωνῆσαν WH Treg NA28 ] κράξαν RP

    27 ἅπαντες WH Treg NA28 ] πάντες RP 

    •  πρὸς ἑαυτοὺς Treg NA28 RP ] αὐτοὺς WH 

    •  διδαχὴ καινή WH Treg NA28 ] Τίς ἡ διδαχὴ ἡ καινὴ αὕτη ὅτι RP

    28 καὶ ἐξῆλθεν WH Treg NA28 ] Ἐξῆλθεν δὲ RP 

    •  πανταχοῦ WH Treg NA28 ] – RP

    29 εὐθὺς WH Treg NA28 ] εὐθέως RP 

    •  ἐξελθόντες ἦλθον WH NA28 RP ] ἐξελθὼν ἦλθεν Treg

    30 εὐθὺς WH Treg NA28 ] εὐθέως RP

    31 χειρός WH NA28 ] + αὐτῆς Treg RP 

    •  πυρετός WH Treg NA28 ] + εὐθέως RP

    32 ἔδυ NA28 RP ] ἔδυσεν WH Treg

    33 ἦν ὅλη ἡ πόλις ἐπισυνηγμένη WH Treg NA28 ] ἡ πόλις ὅλη ἐπισυνηγμένη ἦν RP

    34 αὐτόν Treg NA28 RP ] + χριστὸν εἶναι WH


     Holmes, M. W. (2010). Apparatus for the Greek New Testament: SBL Edition (Mk 1:23–34). Logos Bible Software.


    Westcott & Hort (WH) choose a longer Greek manuscript variant in Mark 1:34

    Mark 1:34

    TR NU ᾔδεισαν αὐτόν “they knew him” א* A 0130 Maj all

    variant 1/WH ηδεισαν αυτον Χριστον ειναι “they knew him to be Christ” B L W Θ f1 28 33 nasbmg netmg

    variant 2 ηδεισαν αυτον τον Χριστον ειναι “they knew him to be the Christ” א2 (C) f 700 none

    Although the expansions in the variant readings are probably the result of scribal conformity to Luke 4:41, it seems odd that not one scribe made an insertion from a Markan parallel, such as 1:24 (where the demons call him “Holy One of God”) or 3:11 and 5:7 (where the demons call him “the Son of God”). In any case, it is within the scope of Mark’s presentation for the demons to know Jesus’ divine identity and for Jesus to silence them. This is part of the “messianic secret” motif that recurs in this gospel. Westcott and Hort adopted the first variant due to their preference for B, although it is bracketed. All English versions follow TR or NU.


     Philip W. Comfort, New Testament Text and Translation Commentary: Commentary on the Variant Readings of the Ancient New Testament Manuscripts and How They Relate to the Major English Translations (Carol Stream, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., 2008), 97.


    Lexham English Bible (LEB) is available for free in a collection from Faithlife Corporation => Lexham Intro Collection (5 vols.) that can be used in Logos 9 Basic (free) or larger library. Biblehub.com is a different organization than Faithlife Corporation.


    FYI: New Testament of LEB was available in Feb 2010 => Lexham English Bible: What do you think?


    Keep Smiling 😊

  • WolfgangWolfgang Posts: 3,872

    Mark 1:22-34 LEB (with Hebrew word for Jewish usual translation of אלהים as God in LXX) => ...

    Thereby producing the error of turning the Greek singular noun theos de facto into a plural theoi in order "to substantiate" (so you most likely think?) your "plural voices God".

    Furthermore, you are contradicting the Scriptures by your making the singular God (the Almighty, the Creator, the Lord of hosts => all singular titles for the same singular God !!) into a group or cluster or choir type multi-God of three singular God-"voices" / God-persons, etc.

    Keep smiling along with your long-winded but actually mostly beside the point posts and search results ... you are still not promoting a singular God, You miss linguistically that the use of plural word elohim is designed to emphasize God's majesty (and NOT an inherent plurality) when the singular true God is in view. In other contexts, where plural elohim refers to a plurality the translators translate "gods" as coherent with plural verbs used, etc.

    But then "Keep Smiling 😊" along in your personal private conviction

  • TruthTruth Posts: 395
    edited November 15

    I think that plural grammar reflecting human plural perception of a magnificent triune God is less likely factual than speculative--although it isn't unlikely. Bible writers would be inclined, at least in some instances, to use plural grammar since God is triune. I would also think God would be inclined to inspire writers that way.

    And then we have the plural of majesty.

    Keep Smiling has presented all this thoroughly and beautifully, but at the end of the day, "proof" isn't all that is needed--because people reject proof every day. Consider how Mr. @Bill_Coley claims science and proof are on his side and yet he rejects it more often than not. A very real Holy Spirit working in the heart is what is finally needed on top of the proof. Shut off the noise of men such as the Watchtower long enough to open your heart to the REAL Jehovah. The rebellious, rejection heart is softened and truth snaps into focus. Try it.

    @BroRando when you are ready to escape your cult and if you need a safe place or a halfway house, let us know.

    @Wolfgang this applies to you as well if needed.

    Post edited by Truth on
  • C McC Mc Posts: 4,319

    @BroRando,

    If you want to talk about a "Bible," start with your own: New World Translation (NWT). Several questions are waiting for answers there. May I direct you to: https://www.christiandiscourse.net/discussion/comment/20310/#Comment_20310?

    @BroRando,

    Would you please provide the preface and introduction to the NWT? Using the link above would be helpful. Indeed, you can do this? CM

  • BroRandoBroRando Posts: 477
    edited November 15

    I don't trust the LEB for removing CHRIST from scripture. It's antichristian and demonic.

    And he healed many ⌊who were sick⌋ with various diseases and expelled many demons. And he did not permit the demons to speak, because they knew him. "to be CHRIST" was struck out!

    https://biblehub.com/interlinear/mark/1-34.htm

    Did you see "to be Christ." was removed from this inspired scripture? To be fair, it seems that ALMOST ALL of the Bibles on Biblehub removed CHRIST from the scripture.

    A Real Christian Bible. So he cured many who were ill with various sicknesses, and he expelled many demons, but he would not let the demons speak, for they knew him to be Christ. Mark 1:34 NWT

    The LEB is cheered on by Satan and his deomons in removing CHRIST but not the NWT it places CHRIST back into scritpure with the hollering and screaming of the deomns and their ungodly human counterparts.

  • BroRandoBroRando Posts: 477
    edited November 15


    Here's another deception of the LEB translation.

    And it will happen—everyone who calls on the name of Yahweh will be rescued, because on Mount Zion and in Jerusalem there will be ⌊those who escape], as Yahweh said, and among the survivors whom Yahweh is calling. (Joel 2:32 LEB)

    Acts 2:21 is a Quote from the Hebrew Scriptures but notice the difference?

    And it will be that everyone who calls upon the name of the Lord will be saved. (Acts 2:21 LEB) This corrupt scripture removed God's Holy and Sacred Name from scripture. It should read "And it will be that everyone who calls upon the name of Yahweh will Be Saved."

    Anyone whom refuses to call up the name of Yahweh will not Be Saved but Deceived. What does Acts 2:21 read in your Bible? Have your translators removed God's Holy and Sacred Name from the Bible?


    Why not search out an honest and accurate translation of the scriptures. The New World Translation is the Gold Standard for others to consider who value God's Holy and Sacred Name. “The praise of Jehovah my mouth will speak; and let all flesh bless his holy name to time indefinite, even forever.”​—PSALM 145:21.

    Acts 2:21

    Jehovah: In this quote from Joe 2:32, the divine name, represented by four Hebrew consonants (transliterated YHWH), occurs in the original Hebrew text.​—See App. C.

  • @BroRando November 15 The LEB is cheered on by Satan and his deomons in removing CHRIST but not the NWT it places CHRIST back into scritpure with the hollering and screaming of the deomns and their ungodly human counterparts.

    Michele Pulford truly experienced others words receiving lots of angry hollering and screaming by the devil, demons & dead beings in Hell earlier this century. Michele had intentionally killed her human body using a massive drug overdose: 100+ pills with over six hours before her body was found. Michele had chosen many evil sins in the preceding 13 years so she deserved eternal separation from Holy יהוה Yahweh אלהים God's ❤️

    As I looked at these two hideous demons in front of me, I saw how I had become what they were. This sickened me, as I had no excuse for becoming them. Shocked, I cried out, I have been listening to you two sick, hideous creatures, doing your bidding all this time? No, no, no, no! They screamed, Yes, yes, yes, and went into a frenzy of utter delight saying, Now you are ours! Now you are ours! Once again, I cried out, No! But these hideous creatures zoned in, Yes! You are ours! Lord Lucifer has given you to us. And, remember, you owe us your soul! I could hear myself screaming and screaming as they went into another spitting frenzy of delight. What have I done? God immediately said, Rejected My love. I released a greater anguished howl of regret because of what I had done to God and His love. I had turned what God had fearfully and wonderfully created into drudge and slime. Hate, anger, bitterness, self-abuse, anorexia, bulimia, blood euphoria, lies, deceit, schemes, playing the victim, victimizing, manipulation, judging, avenging, purposely hurting others, adultery, the list of everything I had done went on and on. I was guilty. I could not pretend, deny, or blame shift anymore. I had enjoyed the power of getting my own way, getting even, destroying someone, playing games with people’s emotions, always being the controller, and even planned to murder. I had enjoyed it all. I saw how evil it was. God was right, I knew what path I had chosen and refused to turn away from it. I did not plan, or enjoy the pit I had dug for myself. I never once thought I would end up in hell. I had not really believed there was a hell. How wrong I was. If only! But, it was too late for that! I was a hater of self and a hater of life, and knew I was traveling down into the place of self-destruction. Panic gripped me, because I knew in a very short time I would be stuck in this hell of self-destruction for eternity, with the two hideous demons as my main torturers. I was able to feel and see how they were dying to begin ripping me apart. They had no mercy for me whatsoever, only hate. I also knew that while they would all be torturing me, I would be abusing and destroying my self, my own soul, as well, because that was my controlling sin. What have I done, my God, what have I done? I screamed. God, please don’t send me there, please forgive me,” I begged in agony. I cannot, Michele. It is only the blood of My Son that can bring forgiveness. Desperate, I said, God, I stood in front of that church with Bridget and said the sinner’s prayer. Yes, you did. Can’t that save me? Michele, you acknowledged my Son many times, but most religious people do. You never accepted My precious Son Jesus as Lord and Savior, who died on the cross for you. My Son is the one and only sacrifice and High Priest. I accept nothing else. I am the God who sees into the hearts and thoughts of a man. You did not mean it when you said the sinner’s prayer. God was right. He had seen right into my heart that night in Spring Valley Church. I had gone up to the front of the church and repeated the words saying, “Jesus is the Son of God, and He died on the cross for our sins and rose again and is now sitting on the right hand of God.” But it did not really mean anything to me. I had acknowledged that Jesus was the Son of God, yes, but I had never really accepted Jesus as Lord of all, the One who had shed His blood for me so I could be forgiven. Suddenly, as if a light had been clicked on, I saw it! On breathing out His last breath on earth, Jesus had come down to this place of hell, to the devil’s kingdom, his domain and territory. Jesus had done this so He could finally overcome the devil once and for all, in his domain, and rightfully claim the keys of death from him. This was the final blow against the devil, Lucifer. Now the devil stood completely defeated by Jesus Christ. I cried out, Oh, God Almighty, I am so sorry, I am so sorry. I now understand! What have I done? Jesus, what have I done to You? The fear that was filling me about my eternal fate was replaced with soul-wrenching remorse and repentance. I had missed telling Jesus He is Lord on earth, but I was not going to enter my doom before telling Jesus He is Lord. I then turned my whole being to Jesus. I knew He was not there physically, but I also knew He would be able to hear me. I shouted with all that was in me, Jesus, I am sorry! Forgive me! It is only through You! You are Lord of all! You are the Christ, the Savior! You are the only begotten Son of God. Oh, Lord Jesus, please forgive me before I go into my doom! Please forgive me before you take Your hand of protection off me! Please let me hear You forgive me before I enter the place of torture and hell I deserve. As I said this, I bowed my spirit and soul before Him. I knew He would see my heart, and I hoped with my whole soul He would forgive me. Before I entered the place of my doom for eternity, I wanted Jesus to see I had bowed down and worshipped Him as Lord. I hoped the amoeba-ape, Lucifer, the devil, and all his soldiers were also watching. I shouted out, Jesus is Lord! The angry, snarling voice of the devil cursed me. It seemed to resonate throughout hell, and be followed by the cursing and blaspheming of all the hideous demons present. I knew I had angered Lucifer and his demons, but I did not care. I had seen the truth and this had set me free! My soul had never felt such freedom when I was alive on earth. I felt as if I were soaring like a bird high up in the sky, and not seconds away from burning in hell forever. I defiantly shouted out, “Jesus, You are Lord! You are Lord!” As I said this, I bowed down in total surrender before His Name. High Pitch and Low Pitch, and all the demons present, went into a frenzy of anger and started to snort like animals. I knew their attack on me was going to be vicious. I did not care because I had done the most important thing — I had proclaimed to Jesus that He is Lord. I purposely raised up and stood with my whole being outstretched, ignoring the blasphemous scowling from hell as it became a distant muffle. With determination and a spirit full of praise, I shouted with all my might, J-E-S-U-S! The next thing I knew, a luminous, brilliant, white-bright porthole of light came over me, and I suddenly felt myself being lifted. High Pitch and Low Pitch let out a cursing wail as they scurried off in frightened flight. As I continued going up, the evil, waving tentacles and hideous demons screamed and cursed as if in pain as they scuttled away from this brilliant light. Fiery hell was clearly fleeing from the Light. It was as if this luminous, brilliant, white-bright light was tormenting them. Hell seemed to be totally petrified of this Light and began to tremble, releasing an agonized tortured wail. I gasped out in total amazement and cried in relief.


    Pulford, Michele. Climbing Into Eternity: My Descent in Hell and Flight to Heaven (pp. 170-173). Kindle Edition. 

    Every human chooses what to Love ❤️most, which shows in their words & actions. Choosing to love the untrustworthy human society (JW.org) more than One Holy אלהים God is sin against יהוה Yahweh אלהים God.



    Joel 2:27-32 LEB => And you will know that I am in the midst of Israel, and I am יהוה Yahweh, your אלהים God, and there is no other. My people will never be ashamed again. And it will happen afterward thus: I will pour out my Spirit on all flesh, and your sons and your daughters will prophesy, and your elders will dream dreams; your young men shall see visions. And also on the male slaves and on the female slaves, I will pour out my Spirit in those days. And I will set wonders in the heavens, and on earth, blood and fire and columns of smoke. The sun will be changed to darkness, and the moon to blood, before the coming of the great and awesome day of יהוה Yahweh. And it will happen — everyone who calls on the name of יהוה Yahweh will be rescued, because on Mount Zion and in Jerusalem there will be those who escape, as יהוה Yahweh said, and among the survivors whom יהוה Yahweh is calling.

    Acts 2:14-36 LEB (with Hebrew words for Jewish usual translation of יהוה as Lord & אלהים as God in LXX) => But Peter, standing with the eleven, raised his voice and declared to them, “Judean men, and all those who live in Jerusalem, let this be known to you, and pay attention to my words! For these men are not drunk, as you assume, because it is the third hour of the day. But this is what was spoken through the prophet Joel: ‘And it will be in the last days,’ אלהים God says, ‘I will pour out my Spirit on all flesh, and your sons and your daughters will prophesy, and your young men will see visions, and your old men will dream dreams. And even on my male slaves and on my female slaves I will pour out my Spirit in those days, and they will prophesy. And I will cause wonders in the heaven above and signs on the earth below, blood and fire and vapor of smoke. The sun will be changed to darkness and the moon to blood, before the great and glorious day of the יהוה Lord comes. And it will be that everyone who calls upon the name of the יהוה Lord will be saved.’ “Israelite men, listen to these words! Jesus the Nazarene, a man attested to you by אלהים God with deeds of power and wonders and signs that אלהים God did through him in your midst, just as you yourselves know—this man, delivered up by the determined plan and foreknowledge of אלהים God, you executed by nailing to a cross through the hand of lawless men. אלהים God raised him up, having brought to an end the pains of death, because it was not possible for him to be held by it. For David says with reference to him, ‘I saw the יהוה Lord before me continually, for he is at my right hand so that I will not be shaken. For this reason my heart was glad and my tongue rejoiced greatly, furthermore also my flesh will live in hope, because you will not abandon my soul in Hades, nor will you permit your Holy One to experience decay. You have made known to me the paths of life; you will fill me with gladness with your presence.’ “Men and brothers, it is possible to speak with confidence to you about the patriarch David, that he both died and was buried, and his tomb is with us until this day. Therefore, because he was a prophet and knew that אלהים God had sworn to him with an oath to seat one of his descendants on his throne, by having foreseen this, he spoke about the resurrection of the Christ, that neither was he abandoned in Hades nor did his flesh experience decay. This Jesus אלהים God raised up, of which we all are witnesses. Therefore, having been exalted to the right hand of אלהים God and having received the promise of the Holy Spirit from the Father, he has poured out this that you see and hear. For David did not ascend into heaven, but he himself says, ‘The יהוה Lord said to my יהוה Lord, “Sit at my right hand, until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet.” ’ Therefore let all the house of Israel know beyond a doubt, that אלהים God has made him both יהוה Lord and Christ — this Jesus whom you crucified!”


    Textual Commentaries have insights about Greek text variations for Acts 2:17-21

    Acts 2:17–21

    Western text (D it) reads:

    “17 In the last days it will be, the Lord declares, that I will pour out my Spirit upon all flesh, and their sons and their daughters shall prophesy, and the young men shall see visions, and the old men shall dream dreams. 18 Even upon my slaves, both men and women, [in those days] I will pour out my Spirit; [and they shall prophesy.] 19 And I will show portents in the heaven above and signs on the earth below, [blood, and fire, and smoky mist.] 20 The sun shall be turned to darkness and the moon to blood, before the coming of the Lord’s great [and glorious] day. 21 Then everyone who calls on the name of the Lord shall be saved.”

    The Western text citation of Joel 2:28–32 (adopted by njb) is abbreviated by comparison to the text that is printed in NU, which is supported by a host of witnesses (𝔓74 א A B C E Ψ syr cop etc.) and which generally accords with the Septuagint (in LXX Joel 2:28–32 is numbered 3:1–5). Given this excellent external testimony and the fact that Luke usually followed the Septuagint closely when making OT citations, it is very likely that the Western text is a recension. However, it must be noted that Luke probably did not follow the Septuagint verbatim. Luke introduced the quotation with εστα εν ταις εσχαταις ημεραις (“it will be in the last days”) to make it suitable to Peter’s emphasis on fulfilled eschatology. But a few scribes (B C 076 copsa) changed it to the Septuagint wording, μετα ταυτα (“after these things”). And Luke added και προφητευσουσιν (“and they shall prophesy”) at the end of 2:18, which was deleted by Western scribes who, in this instance alone, may have wanted to conform the citation to the OT text (both LXX and Hebrew).

    The other changes in the Western text can be explained as having been motivated by the reviser’s desire to have Joel’s prophesy speak to all people (“all flesh”)—not just the Jews. Hence, “your sons, your daughters, your old men, your young men” (as addressed to a Jewish audience) become “their sons, their daughters, the old men, the young men” (as addressed to a universal audience) in the Western text. The words “blood, and fire, and smoky mist” were deleted probably because there were no such signs on the day of Pentecost. Peter’s hearers may have associated this phenomenon with the darkness that occurred on Good Friday (Bruce 1990, 121).

     Philip W. Comfort, New Testament Text and Translation Commentary: Commentary on the Variant Readings of the Ancient New Testament Manuscripts and How They Relate to the Major English Translations (Carol Stream, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., 2008), 332.


    2:17–21

    The quotation from Jl 2:28–32 (= LXX 3:1–5) is preserved in two forms, represented by codex Vaticanus and by codex Bezae. The former agrees almost exactly with the text of the Septuagint, whereas the latter embodies a series of changes from the Septuagint, most of which make the quotation more suitable for the occasion. This adaptation may be the work of the original author, and the agreement of the B-text with the Septuagint may have been produced by an editor. On the other hand, however, it is equally possible that the author copied exactly, or nearly so, from his Septuagint, and that the modifications were introduced by the Western reviser. In favor of the latter view is the fact that in other formal quotations the author of Acts displays a remarkable degree of faithfulness to the text of the Septuagint. Moreover, several of the Western modifications appear to reflect an emphasis on Gentile interests, sometimes approaching what has been called the anti-Jewish bias of the Western reviser. The problem is a complex one, however, and the possibility must be left open that occasionally the text of B represents a secondary development.


    2:17 ἐν ταῖς ἐσχάταις ἡμέραις

    It was probably the author himself who substituted ἐν ταῖς ἐσχάταις ἡμέραις (א A D E I P S 462 vg syr Irenaeus Hilary Macarius Chrysostom Augustine al) for μετὰ ταῦτα of the Septuagint (Jl 2:28 [= LXX 3:1]), which is inappropriate for the context of the narrative in Acts. The presence of the words μετὰ ταῦτα in B 076 copsa Cyril of Jerusalem, therefore, should be regarded as the work of an Alexandrian corrector who brought the quotation in Acts into strict conformity with the prevailing text of the Septuagint.


    2:17 λέγει ὁ θεός

    Instead of λέγει ὁ θεός, which is read by most of the manuscripts, the Western text reads λέγει κύριος (D E 242 467 1845 Old Latin Vulgate Irenaeus). The Septuagint lacks the clause. Kilpatrick thinks that “in general the tendency may have been to change κυριοσ to θεοσ as κυριοσ is ambiguous and may mean God or Christ, but θεοσ like Ιησουσ or Χριστοσ is not.”

    There is, however, no evidence that such a tendency as Kilpatrick suggests operated in the case of codex Bezae. A glance at Yoder’s Concordance to the Distinctive Greek Text of Codex Bezae reveals that ten times D reads κύριος for θεός in other manuscripts, and eleven times D reads θεός for κύριος in other manuscripts.

    In the present passage the textual decision must be made on the basis of external evidence, and when the geographical distribution of witnesses is taken into account, it seems to be obvious that λέγει ὁ θεός should be preferred to λέγει κύριος.


    2:17

    The substitution of αὐτῶν (in D itgig Rebaptism Hilary) for the first two instances of ὑμῶν, as well as the omission of the next two instances of ὑμῶν (in the former case by D Rebaptism in the latter by D E itp Rebaptism), may have been motivated by the Western reviser’s wish to make the prophetic oracle apply to Gentiles and not exclusively to the Jews to whom Peter was speaking:

    “I will pour out my Spirit upon all flesh, and their sons and their daughters shall prophesy, and the young men shall see visions, and the old men shall dream dreams.”

    That such was in fact his intention seems to be evident by what follows in ver. 39, where the Western text alters the second person pronouns to the first person, thus implying that the promises belong to the spiritual Israel, the new people of God, and not to the Israel κατὰ σάρκα, to which Peter is speaking.


    2:18 ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ἐκείναις {A}

    On the basis of the testimony of the overwhelming mass of witnesses, a majority of the Committee preferred to retain ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ἐκείναις, explaining the absence of the words in D itd, , Rebaptism Priscillian as due either to an accident in transmission or to a feeling that they were otiose after ἐν ταῖς ἐσχάταις ἡμέραις in ver. 17.


    2:18 καὶ προφητεύσουσιν {A}

    The omission of καὶ προφητεύσουσιν in the Western text (D itp, Tertullian Rebaptism Priscillian) brings the passage into harmony with the Septuagint (and Hebrew) text. Ropes prefers the shorter text and explains the addition as a Western non-interpolation, made before the formation of the text of B.

    Ropes’s; pronouncement that, “if [the words] were originally present, the only reason for omitting them in D would have been the desire to conform to the LXX, but, as has been shown, this motive is the opposite of that which, under any hypothesis, governed the formation of the D-text,” fails to take into account the possibility of accidental omission.

    A majority of the Committee preferred the non-parallel reading, which is supported by the preponderant attestation.


    2:19 αἷμα καὶ πῦρ καὶ ἀτμίδα καπνοῦ {A}

    The omission of the words αἷμα καὶ πῦρ καὶ ἀτμίδα καπνοῦ from the Western text (D itgig, , Priscillian) may have resulted from parablepsis when the eye of the scribe passed from the preceding word κάτω to the final word καπνοῦ. A majority of the Committee preferred the longer text, supported as it is by 𝔓74 א A B C al.


    2:20 καὶ ἐπιφανῆ

    A majority of the Committee regarded the absence of καὶ ἐπιφανῆ in א D itgig, Priscillian as the result of scribal oversight, occasioned either by the presence of two groups of similar letters, μεγαλην and επιφανη, or by the homoeoarcton involved in what follows, καιεπιφανη καιεσται. The text adopted is supported by the preponderant weight of external evidence (𝔓74 A B C E P, apparently all other Greek witnesses, vg al).

     Bruce Manning Metzger, United Bible Societies, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament, Second Edition a Companion Volume to the United Bible Societies’ Greek New Testament (4th Rev. Ed.) (London; New York: United Bible Societies, 1994), 255–258.


    @BroRando November 15 Why not search out an honest and accurate translation of the scriptures. The New World Translation is the Gold Standard for others to consider who value God's Holy and Sacred Name.

    What is fool's gold ? (NWT is fatally flawed with faith belief modifications from untrustworthy JW.org) ?

    John 1:1 in the New World Translation incorrectly adds an indefinite article "a" from untrustworthy society faith belief that Jesus is NOT יהוה Lord.

    How can "The Word was a god" be factually correct while remembering Isaiah 44:6-8 there is NO god beside יהוה ?

    Who is the redeemer, יהוה Yahweh of hosts in Isaiah 44:6 ? (separate voice from יהוה Yahweh, the king of Israel shares the name יהוה as One)

    Two subjects have a singular verb with 1st person pronoun in Isaiah 44.6-8 LEB => Thus says יהוה Yahweh, the king of Israel, and its redeemer, יהוה Yahweh of hosts: “I am the first, and I am the last, and there is no god besides me. And who is like me? Let him proclaim it! And let him declare it and set it in order for me since I established an eternal people and things that are to come, and let them tell them the things that are coming. You must not tremble, and you must not be paralyzed with fear. Have I not made you hear from of old and declared it, and you are my witnesses? Is there a god besides me? And there is no rock! I know none!”

    Same name describes אלהים God and the man Jesus in Jeremiah 23:5-6 LEB => “Look, days are coming,” declares יהוה Yahweh, “when I will raise up for David a righteous branch, and he will reign as king, and he will achieve success, and he will do justice and righteousness in the land. In his days Judah will be saved, and Israel will dwell in safety, and this is his name by which he will be called: ‘יהוה Yahweh is our righteousness.’


    Why does NWT incorrectly insert "other" into Colossians 1:16 that does not appear in Greek manuscripts ?


    Keep Smiling 😊

  • BroRandoBroRando Posts: 477

    @Keep_Smiling_4_Jesus Why does NWT incorrectly insert "other" into Colossians 1:16 that does not appear in Greek manuscripts ?

    Because Jesus did not create himself. (Proverbs 8:22) Jesus is Firstborn of ALL Creation then creation was brought forth through him and for him.

  • BroRandoBroRando Posts: 477

    @Keep_Smiling_4_Jesus

    Want to explain why the LEB removed Christ from Mark 1:34?

    Notice that Mark 1:34 in the LEB removed "to be Christ" from scripture. Who would want CHRIST removed from scripture? https://biblehub.com/interlinear/mark/1-34.htm


  • C McC Mc Posts: 4,319

    @Keep_Smiling_4_Jesus said:

    Why does NWT incorrectly insert "other" into Colossians 1:16 that does not appear in Greek manuscripts?

    @BroRando responded:

    Because Jesus did not create himself. (Proverbs 8:22) Jesus is Firstborn of ALL Creation then creation was brought forth through him and for him.

    @BroRando /Posters,

    First of all, let's be clear that Genesis reveals the God of Christianity to be the God who is one and more than one. The very first verse of the Bible reads: "In the beginning, God (plural, Elohim) created (singular) the heavens and the earth" (Genesis1: 1).

    • This is what the Bible says.

    Please note, the author of Genesis, under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, chose to use the Hebrew plural term:

    • He does use the singular form of the verb 'created.' Please notice...
    • Elohim is a plural noun with a singular meaning.

    The Old Testament writers:

    • Used it over 2500 times, usually with singular verbs and adjectives (as in Gen. 1: 1), implying that God is one and yet God is more than one. This is the one-plurality of the Godhead. Those who claim you want the plain reading of the Bible and accept its "inspiration," this is it, plain and simple.
    • The "Trinity" (composite, not the word) can be found in Genesis 1 and throughout the Bible. Jesus, the Son of God, created everything (Colossians 1: 16 and was with God in the beginning (John 1: 3), and the Holy Spirit "was hovering over the face of the waters" (Genesis 1: 2).
    • No person can call deny this and still call himself a Christian or a Christian Organization. The ones who can boldly deny the God of Genesis passage above, with a straight face, are Islam, modern-day non-Messianic Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jehovah's Witnesses, Unitarians, or any other belief system which rejects the divinity of the Lord Jesus Christ. It's time for some posters to stop the BLASPHEMY!

    Secondly, the multiple employment of titles was common in the literature of ancient times as a device of the literary variety.

    • Archaeological discoveries have illustrated this. They have pondered over Genesis 28:13.
    • The Lord speaks to Jacob and says: "I am Jehovah (Yahweh), the God (Elohim) of Abraham, the God (Elohim) of Isaac."
    • Some tried to argue for multiple authorship of Genesis to get around the truth of the message above. The single sentence above, the basis of using two Hebrew names for the Creator, is a fact. Not so for the truthseeker. Davis pointed out in his book, for one to conclude that differences in style or vocabulary unmistakably indicate different authors is invalid for anybody of literature. He further stated that it's well-known that he is developing the message to the people he is addressing. In sum, a young graduate student's love letter will vary significantly in vocabulary and style from his research paper.

    Keep studying. CM

    SOURCE:

    • Davis, John, Paradise to Prison – Studies in Genesis, Grand Rapids, Baker, 1975, p 23
  • BroRandoBroRando Posts: 477

    @C Mc First of all, let's be clear that Genesis reveals the God of Christianity to be the God who is one and more than one. The very first verse of the Bible reads: "In the beginning, God (plural, Elohimcreated (singular) the heavens and the earth" (Genesis1: 1).

    O Jehovah, you have been our dwelling place throughout all generations.  Before the mountains were born Or You brought forth the earth and the productive land, From everlasting to everlasting, You are God. (Psalm 90:2) Not they or them!

    Before Genesis 1:1, the earth already existed.  Now the earth was formless and desolate, and there was darkness upon the surface of the watery deep, and God’s active force was moving about over the surface of the waters. (Genesis 1:2)

    Really nothing was Created on the first day.... Jehovah caused the light to come forth and he caused the earth to rotate which cause a division of day and night.

    And God said: “Let there be light.” Then there was light.  After that God saw that the light was good, and God began to divide the light from the darkness.  God called the light Day, but the darkness he called Night. And there was evening and there was morning, a first day. (Genesis 3:-5)

    The first day began at Night, Which represents darkness... then there was morning, a first day.

  • TruthTruth Posts: 395

    "If the average JW read the Bible only, and stopped reading the JW publications, they would leave the movement withing six months."

    --Judge Rutherford


    Please note that @BroRando does not represent the typical JW. Among the few I know, they are good, decent, well-meaning people; just duped.

    The Watchtower is a constant feed of distortion necessary to maintain the cult.

    Anyone notice how quiet @Bill_Coley has been? I am beginning to wonder....

  • BroRandoBroRando Posts: 477

    @C Mc First of all, let's be clear that Genesis reveals the God of Christianity to be the God who is one and more than one. The very first verse of the Bible reads: "In the beginning, God (plural, Elohimcreated (singular) the heavens and the earth" (Genesis1: 1).

    You may also want to consider Isaiah 42:5 as to the witness it gives to whom the God is at Genesis 1:1

    This is what the true God, Jehovah, says, The Creator of the heavens and the Grand One who stretched them out, The One who spread out the earth and its produce, The One who gives breath to the people on it And spirit to those who walk on it: (Isaiah 42:5)

    The New World Translation. explains Genesis 1:1 in detail.

    Misconception: Genesis 1:1 indicates that God is a Trinity because the Hebrew word for “God” used in this verse is plural.

     Fact: The title “God” translates the Hebrew word ’Elo·himʹ, which is plural, to denote majesty or excellence, not a number of people. The New Catholic Encyclopedia acknowledges that the plural ’Elo·himʹ as used at Genesis 1:1 “always takes a singular verb, indicating that, like the royal we, the plural of excellence, not number, is meant.”—Second Edition, Volume 6, page 272.


  • WolfgangWolfgang Posts: 3,872

    @C Mc wrote

    First of all, let's be clear that Genesis reveals the God of Christianity to be the God who is one and more than one. The very first verse of the Bible reads: "In the beginning, God (plural, Elohim) created (singular) the heavens and the earth" (Genesis1: 1).

    This is what the Bible says.

    The Bible says clearly that a SINGULAR individual God created ... there is NOTHING about "God is one and more than one".!!

    Please note, the author of Genesis, under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, chose to use the Hebrew plural term:

    He use the singular form of the verb '.' Please notice...

    is a plural noun with a singular meaning.

    So then, why do YOU interpret the term as a noun with a plurality ("more than one") meaning ??

    YOU are the one who is contradicting what the author of the Bible declares !

  • WolfgangWolfgang Posts: 3,872

    Anyone notice how quiet @Bill_Coley has been? I am beginning to wonder....

    Maybe he is just keeping to the lord's words about the pearls ... ?! you mentioned such advice, remember ...

  • TruthTruth Posts: 395

    If so, then he gets 10 bonus points.


  • WolfgangWolfgang Posts: 3,872

    Hmn ... quite a fitting self-portrait, @@Truth

  • C McC Mc Posts: 4,319

    @BroRando,

    No one is picking on you. You have been taught from a flawed source, the NWT. The Bible in Colossians 1:16, like it or not, JESUS WAS THE CREATOR!

    • John 1:3, "All things came into existence through him, and apart from him, not even one thing came into existence."
    • Also, Colossians 1:16-17:
    • Jesus is Omniscient ("all-knowing").
      • Peter said to Him: "Lord, you know all things."
      • See also, John 21:17
    • Jesus not only created all things, John 1:3, but the preservation of this creation also depends upon his omnipotence. Colossians 1:16-17, Hebrews 1:1.

    I can supply other texts that give PROOFS OF THE DEITY OF JESUS if you truly seek a better and holistic understanding. CM

  • BroRandoBroRando Posts: 477
    edited November 16

    @C Mc

    The Bible NEVER states JESUS WAS THE CREATOR! But I can show you that JEHOVAH is the true God and he is the CREATOR.

    "This is what the true God, Jehovah, says, The Creator of the heavens and the Grand One who stretched them out, The One who spread out the earth and its produce, The One who gives breath to the people on it And spirit to those who walk on it:" (Isaiah 42:5)

    "For this is what Jehovah says, The Creator of the heavens, the true God, The One who formed the earth, its Maker who firmly established it, Who did not create it simply for nothing, but formed it to be inhabited: “I am Jehovah, and there is no one else." (Isaiah 45:18)

    The Bible NEVER states Jesus is Omniscient. "Concerning that day and hour nobody knows, neither the angels of the heavens nor the Son, but Only the Father." (Matthew 24:26) Trintarians often quote this scripture to prove Jesus is not Omniscient.

    The Bible Never states creation depends on his omnipotence because he is Firstborn of ALL Creation (Colossians 1:15), Begotten, (John 3:16) and is the Beginning of Creation (Revelation 3:14). The LEB translators added the word "over" on Col 1:15 which is not in the Greek Scripture.

    Jesus is not almighty but rather a Servant of God. "Look! My servant, whom I support! My chosen one, whom I have approved! I have put my spirit in him; He will bring justice to the nations." (Isaiah 42:1) Look! My servant whom I chose, my beloved, whom I have approved! I will put my spirit upon him, and what justice is he will make clear to the nations. (Matthew 12:18)

    Note: The LEB translators removed begotten from scriptures including its removal from Jesus quotation at (John 3:16). Begotten means Born and Brought Forth as in being created.


    O Jehovah, you have been our dwelling place throughout all generations.  Before the mountains were Born Or you Brought Forth the earth and the productive land, From everlasting to everlasting, you are God." (Pslam 90:1-2)

    Creation itself is begotten as being born and brought forth as through labor pains.

  • @Keep_Smiling_4_Jesus November 15 Why does NWT incorrectly insert "other" into Colossians 1:16 that does not appear in Greek manuscripts ?

    @BroRando November 15 Because Jesus did not create himself. (Proverbs 8:22) Jesus is Firstborn of ALL Creation then creation was brought forth through him and for him.

    Why is the untrustworthy Watchtower society (jw.org) lying about what Paul wrote by inserting "other" into Colossians 1:16 ?

    While learning to be a Pharisee (see Philippians 3:1-14), Paul intensely studied Jewish Scripture, which included Proverbs, but Paul did NOT write "other" in Colossians 1:16 (actually is in the middle of one long sentence that was numbered Colossians 1:9-20 centuries after Paul wrote letter).

    Koine Greek language has several words whose meaning range includes "other" aspects:

    243. ἄλλος allŏs, al´-los; a prim. word; “else,” i.e. different (in many applications):—more, one (another), (an-, some an-) other (-s, -wise).


    245. ἀλλότριος allŏtriŏs, al-lot´-ree-os; from 243; another’s, i.e. not one’s own; by extens. foreign, not akin, hostile:—alien, (an-) other (man’s, men’s), strange (-r).

    246. ἀλλόφυλος allŏphulŏs, al-lof´-oo-los; from 243 and 5443; foreign, i.e. (spec.) Gentile:—one of another nation.

    247. ἄλλως allōs, al´-loce; adv. from 243; differently:—otherwise.


    2087. ἕτερος hĕtĕrŏs, het´-er-os; of uncert. affin.; (an-, the) other or different:—altered, else, next (day), one, (an-) other, some, strange.

    2088. ἑτέρως hĕtĕrōs, het-er´-oce; adv. from 2087; differently:—otherwise.


     Strong, J. (2009). A Concise Dictionary of the Words in the Greek Testament and The Hebrew Bible (Vol. 1, p. 10, 33). Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software.


    @BroRando November 15 Notice that Mark 1:34 in the LEB removed "to be Christ" from scripture. Who would want CHRIST removed from scripture? https://biblehub.com/interlinear/mark/1-34.htm

    Koine Greek language does not have parenthesis characters. Biblehub shows parenthesis around two Greek words in Mark 1:34 to indicate a textual variant that does not appear in many Greek manuscripts. Society of Biblical Languages Greek New Testament was used for translation into the Lexham English Bible (LEB), which does not have "Christ to be" [Χριστὸν εἶναι] addition in Mark 1:34

    Logos Bible Search for (<Lemma = lbs/el/Χριστός> OR Christ) WITHIN {Milestone <mk1.34>} in All Bibles in my Logos library finds four Bibles. Westcott & Hort (WH) Greek New Testament published in 1881 has brackets (also not part of Koine Greek language) around two Greek words to show textual variant addition in Mark 1:34 => καὶ ἐθεράπευσεν πολλοὺς κακῶς ἔχοντας ποικίλαις νόσοις, καὶ δαιμόνια πολλὰ ἐξέβαλεν, καὶ οὐκ ἤφιεν λαλεῖν τὰ δαιμόνια, ὅτι ᾔδεισαν αὐτὸν [Χριστὸν εἶναι].

    Logos Bible software has a Concordance tool, which can be used to count lemma's (original language dictionary form of words) in a passage. In WH, lemma Χριστός for Christ appears 7 times in the Gospel of Mark without brackets and once in Mark 1:34 with brackets. By way of comparison, lemma Ἰησοῦς for Jesus appears 81 times in the Gospel of Mark. Primary audience for the Gospel of Mark is gentile converts to believing Jesus is יהוה Lord. From original cultural perspective, the word Christ, Messiah, has significance for Jews, who look forward to King Messiah ruling righteously over all the earth (has not yet happened).

    In 1902, Kirsupp Lake recognized Greek manuscripts for the Gospel of Mark have puzzling variations:

    The Text of Fam1 in St Mark

    It will be seen at once from these lists that the text of fam1 in St Mark differs from that in the other Gospels in two points. It has a more definite connection with the Old Syriac, and it has a greater number of readings which cannot be classified as belonging to any generally recognized family.

    The second point is particularly striking: lists BCDE contain 98 readings in all, list F contains 107 readings. A closer examination of the lists throws light on this curious fact. There is a common element in all the lists; more than three-fourths of the readings are supported by some or all of the following: fam13 22 28 565 700. So far then as St Mark is concerned we have to recognize a close connection between fam1 and fam13 22 28 565 700. This connection admits theoretically of two explanations:—(1) some one of the group may represent the original archetype of a lost family, and the variations of the other manuscripts may be due to mixture with different types of text: (2) no one of the group may be a faithful representative of the original text, but all may have suffered mixture with the more ordinary types. I regard the latter as by far the more probable explanation. Assuming then that this group represents a common original, which is not reproduced perfectly by any one of the extant manuscripts, the explanation which may be given of this noteworthy relationship will depend on the view taken of our knowledge of Pre-Antiochian texts. If it be supposed that we have even a partial knowledge of all the types of text which obtained before the Antiochian text became dominant, probably all this group of minuscules must be regarded as representing a lost recension which was based on a knowledge of all the early types of text and has been preserved in several late forms, all of which have been mixed with the Antiochian text. In other words it must be a recension which stands in the same relation to the early texts as the Antiochian text does, since it implies a knowledge of them all and an eclectic criticism which followed sometimes one and sometimes another.

    But it is just this accurate knowledge of the early texts which is not possessed.

    The only types of text of undoubted antiquity of which we have certain knowledge are:

    (1) The text represented by the two Old Syriac mss, but no Greek mss.

    (2) The text represented by D and the Old Latin mss.

    (3) The text represented by אB and the Bohairic version.

    Of these three types, and of these alone, a fair knowledge may be claimed. But although our knowledge does not go much further than this with any certainty, there is yet evidence to show that there were other types, whose existence can be proved, if their character cannot be clearly defined. Such is the text represented by Clement’s quotations, and that represented by אc, which seems to be a Caesarean text of which there are more representatives in the Epistles than in the Gospels.

    So far therefore from allowing us to think that we have an adequate knowledge of the early texts, the evidence indicates that our knowledge is limited and unequal.

    In fact, in trying to restore the early texts, we are in much the same position as a geographer who tries to map out a submerged continent from an archipelago of islands; except indeed that the geographer can judge by accurate soundings (and the textual critic can only speculate) as to the nature of the ground beneath the sea.

     Kirsopp Lake, Codex 1 of the Gospels and Its Allies: Greek Text, ed. J. Armitage Robinson, no. 3., vol. 7, Texts and Studies: Contributions to Biblical and Patristic Literature (Cambridge: Cambridge at the University Press, 1902), l–li.


    @BroRando November 15 Really nothing was Created on the first day.... Jehovah caused the light to come forth and he caused the earth to rotate which cause a division of day and night.

    Physically describing light creation by One unique plural e-lo-HEEM אלהים God on the first day is incredibly challenging (as is describing how much God truly loves ❤️ every person, which includes designing & letting every person choose what to love most). The earth and plants were created on the third day (Genesis 1:9-13) followed by the sun, moon, & stars being created on the fourth day (Genesis 1:14-19).


    @BroRando November 15 Fact: The title “God” translates the Hebrew word ’Elo·himʹ, which is plural, to denote majesty or excellence, not a number of people. 

    If "Fact" was consistently true, then Hebrew Bible would not have any plural pronouns and verbs inspired by Holy God to describe Holy God.

    Us & our are in Genesis 1:26 LEB => And אלהים God said, “Let us make humankind in our image and according to our likeness, and let them rule over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of heaven, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every moving thing that moves upon the earth.”

    Us is in Genesis 3:22 LEB => And יהוה Yahweh אלהים God said, “Look — the man has become as one of us, to know good and evil. What if he stretches out his hand and takes also from the tree of life and eats, and lives forever?”

    "Who shall go for us ?" is in Isaiah 6:1-8 LEB => In the year of the death of Uzziah the king, I saw the אדני Lord sitting on a high and raised throne, and the hem of his robe was filling the temple. Seraphs were standing above him. Each had six wings: with two he covered his face, and with two he covered his feet, and with two he flew. And the one called to the other and said, “Holy, holy, holy is יהוה Yahweh of hosts! The whole earth is full of his glory.” And the pivots of the thresholds shook from the sound of those who called, and the house was filled with smoke. And I said, “Woe to me! For I am destroyed! For I am a man of unclean lips, and I am living among a people of unclean lips, for my eyes have seen the king, יהוה Yahweh of hosts!” Then one of the seraphs flew to me, and in his hand was a hot coal he had taken from the altar with tongs. And he touched my mouth, and he said, “Look! This has touched your lips and has removed your guilt, and your sin is annulled.” Then I heard the voice of the אדני Lord saying, “Whom shall I send? And who will go for us?” And I said, “I am here! Send me!”

    Notice a-do-NAI אדני (Lord) refers to יהוה Yahweh of hosts!

    We, us, & our are in Isaiah 41:17-25 LEB => The poor and the needy are seeking water and there is none; their tongue is dried up with thirst. I, יהוה Yahweh, will answer them; I, the אלהים God of Israel, will not forsake them. I will open rivers on the barren heights and fountains in the midst of the valleys. I will make the wilderness like a pool of water and the land of dryness like springs of water. I will put the cedar, acacia, myrtle, and olive oil tree in the wilderness; I will set the cypress, elm, and box tree together in the desert so that they may see and know, and take to heart and understand together that the hand of Yahweh has done this, and the holy one of Israel has created it.” “Present your legal case,” says יהוה Yahweh. “Bring your evidence,” says the king of Jacob. Let them bring them, and let them tell us what will happen. Tell us what the former things are so that we may take them to our heart and know their outcome. Declare to us the things to come; tell us the things coming hereafter, that we may know that you are אלהים gods. Indeed, do good or do evil, that we may be afraid and see together. Look! you are nothing, and your work is something worthless; whoever chooses you is an abomination. I stirred up one from the north, and he has come from the rising of the sun. He shall call on my name, and he shall come on officials as on mortar, and as the potter treads clay.

    Us is in Isaiah 43:1-13 LEB => But now thus says יהוה Yahweh, he who created you, Jacob, and he who formed you, Israel: “You must not fear, for I have redeemed you. I have called you by your name; you are mine. When you pass through the waters, I will be with you, and through the rivers, they shall not flow over you. When you walk through fire, you shall not be burned, and the flame shall not scorch you. For I am יהוה Yahweh, your אלהים God, the holy one of Israel, your savior. I give you Egypt as ransom, Cush and Seba in place of you. Because you are precious in my eyes, you are honored, and I myself love you, and I give people in place of you, and nations in place of your life. You must not fear, for I am with you. I will bring your offspring from the east, and I will gather you from the west. I will say to the north, ‘Give!’ and to the south, ‘You must not withhold!’ Bring my sons from far away, and my daughters from the end of the earth — everyone who is called by my name, and whom I created for my glory, whom I formed, indeed whom I made.” Bring out the people blind yet with eyes, and deaf, though they have ears. Let all the nations gather together, and let the peoples assemble. Who among them has declared this, and declared the former things to us? Let them bring their witnesses, that they may be in the right, and let them hear and say, “It is true!” “You are my witnesses,” declares יהוה Yahweh, “and my servant whom I have chosen so that you may know and believe in me and understand that I am he. No אל god was formed before me, and none shall be after me. I myself am יהוה Yahweh, and there is no savior besides me! I myself declared and saved, and I proclaimed. And there was no strange god among you. And you are my witnesses,” declares יהוה Yahweh, “and I am אל God. Indeed, from this day I am the one, and no one can deliver from my hand. I perform, and who can cancel it?”

    FWIW: history of modern Israel includes Jewish people coming from East, West, North, South.

    If Jesus is NOT יהוה who is One in The Father, then Jesus cannot be savior nor redeemer for anyone. Isaiah 43:11 "I myself am יהוה Yahweh, and there is no savior besides me!"

    Jewish religious leaders (scholars) questioned Jesus in John 10:22-30 LEB => Then the feast of the Dedication took place in Jerusalem. It was winter, and Jesus was walking in the temple in the Portico of Solomon. So the Jews surrounded him and began to say to him, “How long will you keep us in suspense? If you are the Christ, tell us plainly!” Jesus answered them, “I told you and you do not believe! The deeds that I do in the name of my Father, these testify about me. But you do not believe, because you are not of my sheep! My sheep listen to my voice, and I know them, and they follow me. And I give them eternal life, and they will never perish forever, and no one will seize them out of my hand. My Father, who has given them to me, is greater than all, and no one can seize them from the Father’s hand. The Father and I are one.”

    Jewish religious leaders refused to believe the man Jesus is יהוה Lord (The Word voice of אלהים God in a human body) and reacted as though Jesus said: "The Father and I are one יהוה" as shown in John 10:31-33 LEB => Then the Jews picked up stones again so that they could stone him. Jesus answered them, “I have shown you many good deeds from the Father. For which one of them are you going to stone me?” The Jews answered him, “We are not going to stone you concerning a good deed, but concerning blasphemy, and because you, although you are a man, make yourself to be אלהים God!



    @BroRando November 16 The Bible NEVER states JESUS WAS THE CREATOR! But I can show you that JEHOVAH is the true God and he is the CREATOR.

    What is "the root" in Revelation 22:16 LEB => “I, Jesus, sent my angel to testify to you about these things for the churches. I am the root and the descendant of David, the bright morning star.”

    Can you believe Jesus was part of אלהים God who created humankind in the image of אלהים God with the design for The Word voice in אלהים God to take on human flesh (seed of the woman: Genesis 3:15) ?


    @BroRando November 16 The Bible Never states creation depends on his omnipotence because he is Firstborn of ALL Creation (Colossians 1:15), Begotten, (John 3:16) and is the Beginning of Creation (Revelation 3:14). The LEB translators added the word "over" on Col 1:15 which is not in the Greek Scripture.

    Noticed translation interpretation included "of" in phrase 'Firstborn of ALL Creation' for genitive grammatical case ("of" & "from" are two primary English words for expressing range of meaning)

    Koine Greek phrase by Paul in Colossians 1:15 is: πρωτότοκος πάσης κτίσεως

    πρωτότοκος - firstborn - adjective, nominative, singular, masculine

    πάσης - all - adjective, genitive, singular, feminine

    κτίσεως - creation - noun, genitive, singular, feminine


    Firstborn range of meaning includes preeminence, being the most important, which can be expressed "firstborn over all creation"

    Later in the sentence numbered Colossians 1:9-20 is the phrase πρωτότοκος ἐκ τῶν νεκρῶν "firstborn from the dead" in Colossians 1:18

    πρωτότοκος - firstborn - adjective, nominative, singular, masculine

    ἐκ - from - preposition

    τῶν - the - article, genitive, plural, masculine

    νεκρῶν - dead - noun, genitive, plural, masculine


    The human body of Jesus was not the first one resurrected to life.

    1 Kings 17:8-24 LEB => Then the word of יהוה Yahweh came to him, saying, “Get up and go to Zarephath which belongs to Sidon and stay there. Look, I have commanded a woman there, a widow, to sustain you.” So he arose and went to Zarephath and came to the gate of the city. There was a widow woman gathering wood, so he called to her, and he said, “Please bring a little water for me in a vessel so that I can drink.” She went to fetch it, and he called to her and said, “Please bring me a morsel of bread in your hand.” She said, “As יהוה Yahweh your אלהים God lives, surely I do not have a cake, but only a handful of flour in the jar and a little olive oil in the jug. Here I am gathering a few pieces of wood, and I will go and prepare it for me and my son, that we might eat it and die.” Elijah said to her, “Don’t be afraid. Go and do according to your word; only make for me a small bread cake from it first, and bring it out to me. Make it for yourself and for your son afterward. For thus says יהוה Yahweh, the אלהים God of Israel: ‘The jar of flour will not be emptied and the jug of olive oil will not run out until the day יהוה Yahweh gives rain on the surface of the earth.’ ” So she went and did according to the word of Elijah; then both she and he ate with her household for many days. The jar of flour was not emptied and the jug of olive oil did not run out, according to the word of יהוה Yahweh which he spoke by the hand of Elijah. It happened after these things that the son of the woman, the mistress of the house, became ill; and his illness was very severe until there was no breath left in him. She said to Elijah, “What do you have against me, O man of אלהים God, that you have come to me to make known my guilt and to cause my son to die?” Then he said to her, “Give me your son.” He took him from her lap and carried him up to the upper room where he was staying, and he laid him on his bed. Then he called to יהוה Yahweh and said, “O יהוה Yahweh my אלהים God, are you also causing evil to come upon the widow with whom I am dwelling as an alien by causing her son to die?” He stretched himself out on the child three times and called to יהוה Yahweh and said, “O יהוה Yahweh my אלהים God, please let the life of this child return within him.” יהוה Yahweh listened to the voice of Elijah, and the life of the child returned within him, and he lived. Elijah then took the child and brought him down from the upper room to the house and gave him to his mother. Elijah said, “Look, your son is alive.” Then the woman said to Elijah, “Now this I know, that you are a man of אלהים God and the word of יהוה Yahweh in your mouth is truth.”


    @BroRando November 16 Jesus is not almighty but rather a Servant of God. 

    Philippians 2:5-11 LEB (with Hebrew words for Jewish usual translation of אלהים & יהוה in LXX) => Think this in yourselves which was also in Christ Jesus, who, existing in the form of אלהים God, did not consider being equal with אלהים God something to be grasped, but emptied himself by taking the form of a slave, by becoming in the likeness of people. And being found in appearance like a man, he humbled himself by becoming obedient to the point of death, that is, death on a cross. Therefore also אלהים God exalted him and graciously granted him the name above every name, so that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of those in heaven and of those on earth and of those under the earth, and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is יהוה Lord, to the glory of אלהים God the Father.


    Keep Smiling 😊

  • BroRandoBroRando Posts: 477
    edited November 17

    @BroRando November 16 The Bible Never states creation depends on his omnipotence because he is Firstborn of ALL Creation (Colossians 1:15), Begotten, (John 3:16) and is the Beginning of Creation (Revelation 3:14). The LEB translators added the word "over" on Col 1:15 which is not in the Greek Scripture.


    @Keep_Smiling_4_Jesus Noticed translation interpretation included "of" in phrase 'Firstborn of ALL Creation' for genitive grammatical case ("of" & "from" are two primary English words for expressing range of meaning)

    The Greek word pas means all, every. The useage of pas can also be extended to all, the whole, every kind of. Never [over].

     3956. pas 

    Strong's Concordance

    pas: all, every

    Original Word: πᾶς, πᾶσα, πᾶν

    Part of Speech: Adjective

    Transliteration: pas

    Phonetic Spelling: (pas)

    Definition: all, every

    Usage: all, the whole, every kind of.

    HELPS Word-studies

    3956 pás – eachevery; each "part(s) of a totality" (L & N, 1, 59.24).

    3956 /pás ("each, every") means "all" in the sense of "each (every) part that applies." The emphasis of the total picture then is on "one piece at a time." 365 (ananeóō) then focuses on the part(s) making up the whole – viewing the whole in terms of the individual parts.

    So the variations can be written as :

    • Firstborn of ALL Creation
    • Firstborn of Every Creation
    • Firstborn of Each Creation
    • Firstborn of the whole Creation

    [over] was added by trintarians at a much later date to change the writers intention. False Religion has always wanted to exalt Satan above the stars of God. "How you have fallen from heaven, O shining one, son of the dawn! How you have been cut down to the earth, You who vanquished nations!  You said in your heart, ‘I will ascend to the heavens. Above the stars of God I will lift up my throne, And I will sit down on the mountain of meeting, In the remotest parts of the north. I will go up above the tops of the clouds; I will make myself resemble the Most High.’ (Isaiah 14:12-13)

    Jesus ans Satan are the two morning stars who have fought over Jehovah's Sovereign. Jesus hallows the Father's Name but Satan slanders Jehovah's Name by hiding it. Satan got the Jews to slander Jehovah's Holy and Sacred with superstition.

    superstition is any belief or practice considered by non-practitioners to be irrational or supernatural, attributed to fate or magic, perceived supernatural influence, or fear of that which is unknown. It is commonly applied to beliefs and practices surrounding luckamuletsastrologyfortune tellingspirits, and certain paranormal entities, particularly the belief that future events can be foretold by specific (apparently) unrelated prior events.

    Judiasm has been abandoned to their New Lord Lucifer and carry his water in denounce Jehovah but exalting Jesus Christ [over] His God and Father Jehovah. The Socery of the trinity will not save you. Supoorters of Satan reject refuse to call on the Name of Jehovah for Salvation and also reject that Jehovah resurrected Jesus Christ.

    Jesus stated, The Father is Greater than I am (John 14:28) for the Father is greater than I am: On numerous occasions, Jesus acknowledged his Father’s greatness, authority, and superior position. (Mt 4:9, 10; 20:23; Lu 22:41, 42; Joh 5:19; 8:42; 13:16)

    Even after Jesus’ ascension to heaven, his apostles described the Father as having a separate and superior position in relation to Jesus. (1Co 11:3; 15:20, 24-28; 1Pe 1:3; 1Jo 2:1; 4:9, 10)

    The Greek word here rendered “greater” (meiʹzon) is the comparative form of the word for “great” (meʹgas), and it is used in many contexts where one person or thing is said to be superior to another.​—Mt 18:1; 23:17; Mr 9:34; 12:31; Lu 22:24; Joh 13:16; 1Co 13:13.

    But what does Satan trinity do?? And I saw three unclean inspired expressions that looked like frogs come out of the mouth of the dragon and out of the mouth of the wild beast and out of the mouth of the false prophet. (Rev 16:13)

    These demons are gathering like mind individauls all over the world. Reject that Jehovah is the true God, the Creator of the heavens ans the earth. Matter of fact 1/3 of the earth is trintarian. Revelation 8:11

    The name of the star is Wormwood. And a third of the waters turned into wormwood, and many of the people died from the waters, because these had been made bitter. (Rev 8:11)

    Who else would stike out God's Holy and Sacred Name and then strike out Christ from scripture. "And he healed many who were sick  with various diseases and expelled many demons. And he did not permit the demons to speak, because they knew him to be Christ." (Mark 1:34 LEB) The LEB is nothing more than a mere Demonic Book that continues to degrade Jehovah, his servant, and followers,

    Remember @Keep_Smiling_4_Jesus when I showed that I am actaully means "to be"? HELPS Word-studies

    1510 eimí (the basic Greek verb which expresses being, i.e. "to be")  Look Closer at picture below....


  • @Keep_Smiling_4_Jesus November 17 Noticed translation interpretation included "of" in phrase 'Firstborn of ALL Creation' for genitive grammatical case ("of" & "from" are two primary English words for expressing range of meaning)

    @BroRando November 17 The Greek word pas means all, every. The useage of pas can also be extended to all, the whole, every kind of. Never [over].

    Many English translations express genitive case πάσης κτίσεως all/every creation using "of" while a couple translations have "to"

    "15 Christ is the visible likeness of the invisible God. He is the first-born Son, superior to all created things."

     American Bible Society. (1992). The Good News Translation with Apocrypha (p. Col 1:15). American Bible Society.

    "15 Christ is exactly like God, who cannot be seen. He is the first-born Son, superior to all creation.

     The Holy Bible: The Contemporary English Version (p. Col 1:15). (1995). Thomas Nelson.


    Several other translations have over in Colossians 1:15 segment in the sentence numbered Colossians 1:9-20 (includes top selling 1984 NIV)

    "9–16 Because of this, we also, from the day we heard, do not cease on behalf of you offering our petitions and presenting our definite requests, that you might be filled with the advanced and perfect experiential knowledge of His will in the sphere of every kind of wisdom and intelligence which is spiritual, so that you may order your behavior worthily of the Lord with a view to pleasing Him in everything, in every work which is good constantly bearing fruit and increasing by means of the advanced and perfect experiential knowledge of God, by every enabling power being constantly strengthened in proportion to the manifested power of His glory, resulting in every patience and forbearance, with joy constantly giving thanks to the Father who qualified you for the portion of the share of the inheritance of the saints in the sphere of the light; who delivered us out of the tyrannical rule of the darkness and transferred us into the kingdom of the Son of His love, in whom we are having our liberation, procured by the payment of ransom, the putting away of our sins; who is a derived reproduction and manifestation of absolute deity, the invisible deity, who [the Son] has priority to and sovereignty over all creation, because in Him were created all things in the heavens and upon the earth, the visible things and the invisible ones, whether they are thrones or lordships or principalities or authorities. All things through Him as intermediate agent and with a view to Him stand created."

     Kenneth S. Wuest, The New Testament: An Expanded Translation (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1961), Col 1:9–16.

    "15 He is the image of the invisible God; his is the primacy over all created things."

     McH, W. D. (1970). Introduction. In The New English Bible (p. Col 1:15). Oxford University Press; Cambridge University Press.

    "15 He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation."

     The New King James Version (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1982), Col 1:15.

    "15 He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation."

     The Holy Bible: New International Version (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1984), Col 1:15.

    "15 He is the image of the invisible God; his is the primacy over all creation."

     The Revised English Bible (Cambridge; New York; Melbourne; Madrid; Cape Town; Singapore; São Paulo; Delhi; Dubai; Tokyo: Cambridge University Press, 1996), Col 1:15.

    "15 He is the visible image of the invisible God. He is supreme over all creation,"

     David H. Stern, Complete Jewish Bible: An English Version of the Tanakh (Old Testament) and B’rit Hadashah (New Testament), 1st ed. (Clarksville, MD: Jewish New Testament Publications, 1998), Col 1:15.

    "15 He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn * over all creation, **

     Biblical Studies Press, The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible (Biblical Studies Press, 2005), Col 1:15.

    tn (translator's note) The Greek term πρωτότοκος (prōtotokos) could refer either to first in order of time, such as a first born child, or it could refer to one who is preeminent in rank. M. J. Harris, Colossians and Philemon (EGGNT), 43, expresses the meaning of the word well: “The ‘firstborn’ was either the eldest child in a family or a person of preeminent rank. The use of this term to describe the Davidic king in Ps 88:28 LXX (=Ps 89:27 EVV), ‘I will also appoint him my firstborn (πρωτότοκον), the most exalted of the kings of the earth,’ indicates that it can denote supremacy in rank as well as priority in time. But whether the πρωτό- element in the word denotes time, rank, or both, the significance of the -τοκος element as indicating birth or origin (from τίκτω, give birth to) has been virtually lost except in ref. to lit. birth.” In Col 1:15 the emphasis is on the priority of Jesus’ rank as over and above creation (cf. 1:16 and the “for” clause referring to Jesus as Creator).

    ** tn (translator's note) The genitive construction πάσης κτίσεως (pasēs ktiseōs) is a genitive of subordination and is therefore translated as “over all creation.” See ExSyn 103–4.

     Biblical Studies Press, The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible (Biblical Studies Press, 2005).

    "15 The Son is the image of the invisible God, the one who is first over all creation,"

     Common English Bible (Nashville, TN: Common English Bible, 2011), Col 1:15.

    "15 The Son is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation"

     International Standard Version (Yorba Linda, CA: ISV Foundation, 2011), Col 1:15.

    "15 Christ is the visible image of the invisible God. He existed before anything was created and is supreme over all creation,"

     Tyndale House Publishers, Holy Bible: New Living Translation (Carol Stream, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, 2015), Col 1:15.

    "15 He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation,"

     Holy Bible: Evangelical Heritage Version (Milwaukee, WI: Northwestern Publishing House, 2019), Col 1:15.


    What is the genitive of subordination [over] ? (ExSyn 103-4 in the NET Bible translator's note)

    13. Genitive of Subordination [over]

    a. Definition

    The genitive substantive specifies that which is subordinated to or under the dominion of the head noun.

    b. Key to Identification

    Instead of of supply the gloss over or something like it that suggests dominion or priority.

    c. Amplification/Semantics

    This kind of genitive is a lexico-semantic category. That is, it is related only to certain kinds of head substantives-nouns (or participles) that lexically imply some kind of rule or authority. Words such as βασιλεύς and ἄρχων routinely belong here. For the most part, this genitive is a subset of the objective genitive, but not always.84

    d. Illustrations

    1) Clear Examples

    Matt 9:34 τῷ ἄρχοντι τῶν δαιμονίων

    the ruler over the demons

    Mark 15:32 ὁ βασιλεὺς Ἰσραήλ

    he king over Israel

    2 Cor 4:4 ὁ θεὸς τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου

    the god of this world

    Cf. also John 12:31; Acts 4:26; Rev 1:5; 15:3.

    2) Disputed Examples

    1 Tim 1:17 τῷ δὲ βασιλεῖ τῶν αἰώνων

    now to the king of the ages (=the one who rules over the ages)

    The problem with taking this as attributive (as ASV et al. do) is that the gen. is plural. However, if it were put in the singular, the meaning would not be “eternal king” (“king of the age” would be a temporal king). RSV, NRSV treat it as a gen. of subordination—“king of the ages.”

    Eph 2:2 ποτε περιεπατήσατε … κατὰ τὸν ἄρχοντα τῆς ἐξουσίας τοῦ ἀέρος, τοῦ πνεύματος τοῦ νῦν ἐνεργοῦντος ἐν τοῖς υἱοῖς τῆς ἀπειθείας

    you formerly walked according to the ruler of the domain of the air, [the ruler] of the spirit which now works in the sons of disobedience

    The semantic force of subordination here would be “the one who rules over the domain of the air, over the spirit …” Although some take πνεύματος as a gen. of apposition to ἄρχοντα, this is semantically impossible because such cannot occur when both nouns are personal. (See discussion under gen. of apposition, mentioned above.) The idea of this text, then, is that the devil controls non-believers both externally (the environment or domain of the air) and internally (attitudes or spirit).

    Col 1:15 ὅς ἐστιν εἰκὼν τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦ ἀοράτου, πρωτότοκος πάσης κτίσεως

    who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation

    Though some regard this gen. to be partitive (thus, firstborn who is a part of creation), both due to the lexical field of “firstborn” including “preeminent over”87 (and not just a literal chronological birth order) and the following causal clause (“for [ὅτι] in him all things were created”)—which makes little sense if mere chronological order is in view, it is far more likely that this expresses subordination. Further, although most examples of subordination involve a verbal head noun, not all do (notice 2 Cor 4:4 above, as well as Acts 13:17). The resultant meaning seems to be an early confession of Christ’s lordship and hence, implicitly, his deity.


     Daniel B. Wallace, Greek Grammar beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1996), 103–104.


    Strong's Concordance has Greek language limitation of only including words used in Scripture along with simplified word definition. Larger range of word meaning is in A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, 3rd ed. BDAG has five numbered definitions for πᾶς, πᾶσα, πᾶν that includes:

    πᾶς, πᾶσα, πᾶν gen. παντός, πάσης, παντός (dat. pl. πᾶσι and πᾶσιν vary considerably in the mss.; s. W-S. §5, 28; cp. Rob. 219–21; on the use of the art. s. B-D-F §275) (Hom. +).

    ① pert. to totality with focus on its individual components, each, every, any

    ⓐ adj., used w. a noun without the art.

    α. in the sing. emphasizing the individual members of the class denoted by the noun every, each, any, scarcely different in mng. fr. the pl. ‘all’: 

     πᾶν δένδρον Mt 3:10Lk 3:9. 

     πᾶσα φυτεία Mt 15:13. 

     πᾶσα φάραγξ, πᾶν ὄρος Lk 3:5 (Is 40:4). 

     πᾶς τόπος 4:37. 

     πᾶς ἄνθρωπος J 1:92:10Ro 3:4 (Ps 115:2); Gal 5:3Col 1:28abdJs 1:19. 

     πᾶσα γυνή GJs 11:2. 

     πᾶν ἔθνος Ac 17:26a. 

     πᾶσα ψυχή (Pla., Phdr. 249e) 2:433:23 (cp. Lev 23:29); Ro 2:9Jd 15. 

     πᾶσα ἡμέρα Ac 5:4217:17. 

     πᾶν σάββατον 18:4. 

     πᾶσα ἀρχὴ καὶ πᾶσα ἐξουσία 1 Cor 15:24 (cp. Just., D. 111, 2 οὗ τὸ ὄνομα πᾶσα ἀρχὴ δέδιεν). 

     πᾶσα συνείδησις 2 Cor 4:2. 

     πᾶς ἅγιος Phil 4:21. 

     πᾶς οἶκος Hb 3:4 (GJs 7:3). 

     πᾶσα ἀντιλογία 7:7. 

     πᾶσα παιδεία all discipline 12:11. 

     πᾶς ὀφθαλμός Rv 1:7a. 

     πᾶν κτίσμα 5:13a.

     —Mt 23:35Lk 2:23 (Ex 13:2); 4:1321:362 Th 2:4 (Da 11:36). 

     πᾶσα κτίσις every creature Col 1:15

    . . .


     William Arndt, Frederick W. Danker, et al., A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 782.

    Another lexicon for Greek New Testament is Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament Based on Semantic Domains by Louw & Nida, which has numbering assigned to every word to show semantic meaning in a particular context.

    Preface

    This Greek New Testament lexicon based on semantic domains has been designed primarily for translators of the New Testament in various languages, but biblical scholars, pastors, and theological students will no doubt also find this lexicon of particular value, since it focuses on the related meanings of different words. This focus is clearly a major concern of all theological studies. In addition, a number of linguists and lexicographers are likely to be interested in view of the distinctive approach and methodology employed in this lexicon.

    The approach to the problems of the meaning of lexical items (words and idioms) in this dictionary is the outgrowth of field experience, which has included helping Bible translators in some 200 different languages in the world, but both the orientation and the methodology reflect a body of important relevant research, including the work of Lounsbury (1964), Conklin (1962), Goodenough (1956), Nida (1975), and Lehrer (1974).

    Initial work on this lexicon began in the summer of 1972, and the editorial team consisted of Johannes P. Louw of the University of Pretoria in South Africa, Eugene A. Nida of the American Bible Society and the United Bible Societies, and Rondal B. Smith, then of Lincoln Christian College and at present with the Pioneer Bible Translators. In view of other commitments, however, Professor Smith was not able to continue until the end of the editorial processes. Karen A. Munson, who made important contributions to the editorial procedures of the Greek New Testament published by the United Bible Societies, has served throughout the project as an associate editor.

    The procedures employed in the development of this Greek New Testament lexicon have been of four principal types: (1) the classification of meanings of the New Testament vocabulary into domains and subdomains, based on a dictionary published by the United Bible Societies and edited by Barclay M. Newman; (2) a verification of these meanings, as well as the addition of other meanings of lexical items based on a careful study of Greek New Testament concordances and dictionaries; (3) the preparation of definitions and notes (both those for translators, included in the text, and for linguists and lexicographers, in footnotes); and (4) final editing, cross referencing, and indexing, as well as proofreading. Responsibility for the first procedure rested with the editorial committee of Louw, Nida, and Smith, while the second procedure was carried out by Louw and Smith, with major responsibility resting with Louw. The third procedure was carried out by Nida in close consultation with Louw, and the fourth procedure was the responsibility of Louw and his staff (in particular Stienie Venter, Willem Oliver, and Tienie Bosman assisted by Wessel Venter) at the University of Pretoria, with additional assistance from Karen Munson, who has been responsible for the preparation of the manuscript at various stages.

    In a publication as extensive and complex as this Greek New Testament lexicon, it is inevitable that certain matters will be overlooked and some mistakes will be made. Accordingly, plans have been made for the publication in subsequent editions of both errata and addenda. Since the dictionary is computerized, corrections can be readily introduced. The editors will be particularly thankful for help from any person using this lexicon who can provide assistance in noting mistakes and oversights.

    The editors sincerely hope that this lexicon will be of real service to biblical scholars, students, and New Testament translators, as well as to semanticists and lexicographers, since this is the first time that such a large body of lexical data has been submitted to careful analysis and organization into semantic domains.

    1987 Johannes P. Louw and Eugene A. Nida

     Johannes P. Louw and Eugene Albert Nida, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament: Based on Semantic Domains (New York: United Bible Societies, 1996), iv–v.


    Vine’s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words groups original language words by English translation:

    ALL

    A. Adjectives.

    1. pas (πα̂ς, 3956) radically means “all.” Used without the article it means “every,” every kind or variety. So the rv marg. in Eph. 2:21, “every building,” and the text in 3:15, “every family,” and the rv marg. of Acts 2:36, “every house”; or it may signify “the highest degree,” the maximum of what is referred to, as, “with all boldness” Acts 4:29. Before proper names of countries, cities and nations, and before collective terms, like “Israel,” it signifies either “all” or “the whole,” e.g., Matt. 2:3; Acts 2:36. Used with the article, it means the whole of one object. In the plural it signifies “the totality of the persons or things referred to.” Used without a noun it virtually becomes a pronoun, meaning “everyone” or “anyone.” In the plural with a noun it means “all.” The neuter singular denotes “everything” or “anything whatsoever.” One form of the neuter plural (panta) signifies “wholly, together, in all ways, in all things,” Acts 20:35; 1 Cor. 9:25. The neuter plural without the article signifies “all things severally,” e.g., John 1:3; 1 Cor. 2:10; preceded by the article it denotes “all things,” as constituting a whole, e.g., Rom. 11:36; 1 Cor. 8:6; Eph. 3:9. See every, Note (1), whole.

    2. hapas (ἅπας, 537), a strengthened form of pas, signifies “quite all, the whole,” and, in the plural, “all, all things.” Preceded by an article and followed by a noun it means “the whole of.” In 1 Tim. 1:16 the significance is “the whole of His longsuffering,” or “the fulness of His longsuffering. See every, whole. 

    3. holos (ὅλος, 3650), “the whole, all,” is most frequently used with the article followed by a noun, e.g., Matt. 4:23. It is used with the article alone, in John 7:23, “every whit”; Acts 11:26; 21:31; 28:30; Titus 1:11; Luke 5:5, in the best texts. See altogether.

    Note: The adjective holokleros, lit., “whole-lot, entire,” stresses the separate parts which constitute the whole, no part being incomplete. See entire. 

    B. Adverbs.

    1. holos (ὅλως, 3654) signifies “at all,” Matt. 5:34; 1 Cor. 15:29; “actually,” 1 Cor. 5:1, rv (kjv, wrongly, “commonly”); “altogether,” 1 Cor. 6:7 (kjv, “utterly).¶

    Notes: (1) Holoteles, from A, No. 3, and telos, “complete,” signifies “wholly, through and through,” 1 Thess. 5:23, lit., “whole complete”; there, not an increasing degree of sanctification is intended, but the sanctification of the believer in every part of his being.¶

    (2) The synonym katholou, a strengthened form of holou signifies “at all,” Acts 4:18.¶ 

    2. pantos (πάντως, 3843), when used without a negative, signifies “wholly, entirely, by all means,” Acts 18:21 (kjv); 1 Cor. 9:22; “altogether,” 1 Cor. 9:10; “no doubt, doubtless,” Luke 4:23, rv (kjv, “surely”); Acts 28:4. In 21:22 it is translated “certainly,” rv, for kjv, “needs” (lit., “by all means”). With a negative it signifies “in no wise,” Rom. 3:9; 1 Cor. 5:10; 16:12 (at all). See altogether, doubt (no), means, surely, wise.¶

    C. Pronoun. 

    hosa (ὅσος, 3745), the neuter plural of hosos, “as much as,” chiefly used in the plural, is sometimes rendered “all that,” e.g., Acts 4:23; 14:27. It really means “whatsoever things.” See Luke 9:10, rv, “what things.”

     W. E. Vine, Merrill F. Unger, and William White Jr., Vine’s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words (Nashville, TN: T. Nelson, 1996), 21–22.


    @BroRando November 17 Remember @Keep_Smiling_4_Jesus when I showed that I am actaully means "to be"?

    Is the “Truly, truly I say to you, before Abraham was, I am!” sentence spoken by Jesus in john 8:58 complete ?

    Why did Jewish religious leaders pick up stones, wanting to kill Jesus ? What did the Jews understand Jewish Rabbi Jesus to have said ?

    John 8:52-59 LEB => The Jews said to him, “Now we know that you have a demon! Abraham and the prophets died, and you say, ‘If anyone keeps my word, he will never taste death forever.’ You are not greater than our father Abraham who died, are you? And the prophets died! Who do you make yourself to be?” Jesus replied, “If I glorify myself, my glory is nothing. The one who glorifies me is my Father, about whom you say, ‘He is our God.’ And you have not known him, but I know him. And if I were to say that I do not know him, I would be a liar like you! But I know him and I keep his word. Abraham your father rejoiced that he would see my day, and he saw it and was glad.” So the Jews said to him, “You are not yet fifty years old, and have you seen Abraham?” Jesus said to them, “Truly, truly I say to you, before Abraham was, I am!” Then they picked up stones in order to throw them at him. But Jesus was hidden and went out of the temple courts.


    @BroRando November 15 Did you see "to be Christ." was removed from this inspired scripture? To be fair, it seems that ALMOST ALL of the Bibles on Biblehub removed CHRIST from the scripture.

    Why do most English Bible translations not have "to be Christ." in Mark 1:34 ?

    What percentage of words have no textual variation in thousands of Greek manuscripts ?


    Keep Smiling 😊

  • C McC Mc Posts: 4,319

    @BroRando,

    With all due respect, you cannot or should critique any other BibleTranlation at this juncture. At least, not now, in these forums. Until you are willing to get brave and address the flaws [misleading, mistranslating, adding words, not in the original GK/Heb tests] in the NWT, you were part and partial of its production. You don't have the credibility to be taken seriously. How can "the pot calling the kettle black" when they both sat on the coal fire? Who are the translators of the NWT? What skills or qualifications do they have in understanding the Greek and Hebrew Languages? CM

  • BroRandoBroRando Posts: 477
    edited November 19

    @BroRando November 15 Did you see "to be Christ." was removed from this inspired scripture? To be fair, it seems that ALMOST ALL of the Bibles on Biblehub removed CHRIST from the scripture.


    @Keep_Smiling_4_Jesus

    Why do most English Bible translations not have "to be Christ." in Mark 1:34 ?

    What percentage of words have no textual variation in thousands of Greek manuscripts ?

    There are several translations that trinitarian translators could have used if they did not what to use Christ.

    • Messiah
    • Chosen One
    • Anointed One

    However, none of those variations were used, rather they decided to cut the scripture short by deleting and removing Christ from the Bible. "And he healed many ⌊who were sick⌋ with various diseases and expelled many demons. And he did not permit the demons to speak, because they knew him to be Christ. (Mark 1:34 LEB)

  • C McC Mc Posts: 4,319

    @BroRando said:

    "However, none of those variations were used, rather they decided to cut the scripture short by deleting and removing Christ from the Bible. "And he healed many ⌊who were sick⌋ with various diseases and expelled many demons. And he did not permit the demons to speak, because they knew him to be Christ." (Mark 1:34 LEB)

    @Wolfgang, help the CD Readers out. Please explain to  @BroRando  the usage of pronouns in a sentence or a paragraph, particularly in Mark 1:34. CM

  • BroRandoBroRando Posts: 477

    Here's the Greek translation. Only the Anti-Christ would remove Christ from the Bible.. So why did the LEB translators remove Christ from God's Inspired Word? Since they removed God's Name from the New Testemant, why stop there?

    What did one Anti-Christ say to the other Anti-Christ? Let's remove Christ from Mark 1:34 in the LEB Anti-Christ doctrine... nobody will notice... especially trinitarians.


  • What had the demon called Jesus in Mark 1:24 ?

    Why do most English Bible translations not have "to be Christ." in Mark 1:34 ?

    What percentage of words have no textual variation in thousands of Greek manuscripts ?


    The Patriarchal Greek New Testament (PATr) has "to be Christ" Χριστὸν εἶναι in Mark 1:34 along with Mark 9:44 & Mark 9:46

    Mark 1:34 PATr => καὶ ἐθεράπευσε πολλοὺς κακῶς ἔχοντας ποικίλαις νόσοις, καὶ δαιμόνια πολλὰ ἐξέβαλε, καὶ οὐκ ἤφιε λαλεῖν τὰ δαιμόνια, ὅτι ᾔδεισαν αὐτὸν Χριστὸν εἶναι.

    Mark 9:44 PATr => ὅπου ὁ σκώληξ αὐτῶν οὐ τελευτᾷ καὶ τὸ πῦρ οὐ σβέννυται.

    Mark 9:46 PATr => ὅπου ὁ σκώληξ αὐτῶν οὐ τελευτᾷ καὶ τὸ πῦρ οὐ σβέννυται.

    Why does NWT have "to be Christ" in Mark 1:34 but has "--" for Mark 9:44 & 9:46 ?


    Eastern/Greek Orthodox Bible: New Testament (EOB) has PATr translation:

    Mark 1:16-39 EOB => As he walked by the sea of Galilee, Jesus saw Simon and Andrew his brother casting a net into the sea, for they were fishermen. Jesus said to them, “Come after me, and I will make you fishers of men.” Immediately, they left their nets and followed him. Going on a little farther from there, he saw James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, who were also in a boat, mending the nets. At once, he called them, and they left their father Zebedee in the boat with the hired servants, and they began to follow him. They went into Capernaum, and on the Sabbath day, Jesus entered into the synagogue and taught. The people were astonished at his teaching because he taught them as having authority, not like the scribes. And there was in their synagogue a man with an unclean spirit who cried out,“Away! What do we have to do with you, Jesus, you Nazarene? Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are: the Holy One of God!” Jesus rebuked him, saying, “Be quiet, and come out of him!” The unclean spirit, convulsing the man and crying with a loud voice, came out of him. The people were all so amazed that they asked each other, “What is this? A new teaching? For with authority he commands even the unclean spirits, and they obey him!” The news about him went out immediately everywhere into the entire region of Galilee and its surrounding area. As soon as they left the synagogue, they came into the house of Simon and Andrew, [along] with James and John. Now Simon’s mother-in-law lay sick with a fever, and immediately, they told him about her. Jesus came, took her by the hand, and raised her up. The fever left her and she began to serve them. At evening, when the sun had set, they brought him all who were sick or possessed by demons. The entire city was gathered at the door. He healed many who were afflicted with various diseases and cast out many demons. However, he did not allow the demons to speak because they knew him to be the Christ. Early in the morning, while it was still dark, Jesus arose, left the house, went out into a deserted place and prayed there. Simon and those with him followed Jesus. When they found him, they told him, “Everyone is looking for you!” He replied, “Let us go into the next towns, so that I may preach there also, for this is why I came.” And he was preaching in their synagogues throughout all of Galilee, casting out demons.

    Mark 9:38-50 EOB => Now John answered him, “Teacher, we have seen someone who does not follow us casting out demons in your Name; and we forbade him, because he does not follow us!” But Jesus said, “Do not forbid him, for no one who does a mighty work in my Name will be able to quickly speak evil of me. Whoever is not against us is on our side! Amen, I tell you that whoever will give you a cup of water to drink in my Name, because you belong to Christ, will not lose his reward. But if someone causes one of these little ones who believe in me to stumble, it would be better for such a person to be thrown into the sea with a millstone hung around the neck.” “If your hand causes you to stumble, cut it off! It is better for you to enter into life maimed, rather than have your two hands and go into Gehenna, the unquenchable fire ‘where their worm does not die, and the fire is not quenched.’ If your foot causes you to stumble, cut it off! It is better for you to enter into life lame, rather than having your two feet to be cast into Gehenna, the fire that will never be quenched, ‘where their worm does not die, and the fire is not quenched.’ If your eye causes you to stumble, pluck it out! It is better for you to enter into the Kingdom of God with one eye, rather than with two eyes to go into the Gehenna of fire, ‘where their worm does not die, and the fire is not quenched.’ Indeed, everyone will be salted with fire, and every sacrifice will be seasoned with salt. Salt is good, but if the salt has lost its saltiness, with what will you season it? Have salt in yourselves, and be at peace with one another.”



    @BroRando November 18 Here's the Greek translation. Only the Anti-Christ would remove Christ from the Bible.. So why did the LEB translators remove Christ from God's Inspired Word? Since they removed God's Name from the New Testemant, why stop there?

    @BroRando November 18 What did one Anti-Christ say to the other Anti-Christ? Let's remove Christ from Mark 1:34 in the LEB Anti-Christ doctrine... nobody will notice... especially trinitarians.

    How would an unclean spirit know "the Holy One of God!," to be The Christ, The Messiah ?


    Keep Smiling 😊

  • BroRandoBroRando Posts: 477


    Yes... Holy one of God another title. The demon was told about Jesus idenity by Satan when Satan concluding the tempting and testing the Christ with evil. If you notice yhe vrse more closely, you should learn something new.  

    23 And so then there was a man in their synagogue with an unclean spirit, and he cried out, 24 saying, “⌊Leave us alone⌋,h Jesus the Nazarene! Have you come to DESTROY us? I know who you are—the Holy One of God!” 

    Michael comes under a New Name (Jesus)...and they knew who he was, but his time was not yet to destroy the demons, but that time is comng.


  • WolfgangWolfgang Posts: 3,872

    @Keep_Smiling_4_Jesus wrote

    What had the demon called Jesus in Mark 1:24 ?

    Reading Mk 1:24 tells the following:

    Mk 1:24 (NASB)

    saying, “What 1business do we have with each other, Jesus of Nazareth? Have You come to destroy us?

    I know who You are—the Holy One of God!”

    The person knew that Jesus of Nazareth was the Holy One of God .... was the statement correct? Is Jesus the Holy One of God? Or is Jesus someone else? Are the words plain enough to understand?

    Why do most English Bible translations not have "to be Christ." in Mark 1:34 ?

    A look in Greek MSS will provide an answer ... More interesting and more important is however what the phrase at the end of vers 34 means.

    Mk 1:34 (NASB)

    And He healed many who were ill with various diseases, and cast out many demons; and He was not permitting the demons to speak, because they knew who He was.

    "... they knew who he was" or "... they knew him" ... Now, WHAT did they know concerning Jesus? That he was one of a God-chorus? that he was God? What does the immediate context (such as info from v.24) reveal about who Jesus of Nazareth was??

  • @Keep_Smiling_4_Jesus November 18 What had the demon called Jesus in Mark 1:24 ?

    @BroRando November 18 Holy one of God another title.

    How many centuries before the Gospel of Mark was the title "Holy One of Israel" known ?

    Logos Bible Search for "Holy One of Israel" in LEB finds 30 verses, which includes Psalm 89:18

    Psalm 89:title-18 LEB => A maskil of Ethan the Ezrahite. I will sing forever of יהוה Yahweh’s acts of loyal love. From generation to generation I will make known your faithfulness with my mouth. For I say, “Forever your loyal love is built up. The heavens you have established with your faithfulness in them.” “I made a covenant with my chosen one; I swore an oath to David my servant: ‘I will establish your descendants forever, and I will build up your throne from generation to generation.’ ” Selah And so the heavens will praise your wonderful deed, O יהוה Yahweh, even your faithfulness, in the assembly of the holy ones. For who in the sky is equal to יהוה Yahweh? Who is like יהוה Yahweh among the sons of אל God, a אל God feared greatly in the council of the holy ones, and awesome above all surrounding him? O יהוה Yahweh אלהים God of hosts, who is mighty like you, O Yah, with your faithfulness surrounding you? You are ruling the surging of the sea. When its waves rise, you yourself still them. You yourself crushed Rahab like one who is slain; you scattered your enemies with your strong arm. The heavens are yours, the earth yours as well, the world with its fullness, because you founded them. North and south, you created them; Tabor and Hermon shout joyfully over your name. You have a mighty arm; Your hand is strong; your right hand reaches high. Righteousness and justice are the foundation of your throne. Loyal love and faithfulness come before your face. Blessed are the people who know the joyful shout; O יהוה Yahweh, they walk about in the light of your countenance. In your name they rejoice all the day, and in your righteousness they rise up. For you are the glory of their strength, and by your favor our horn rises up, because our shield belongs to יהוה Yahweh, and our king to the Holy One of Israel.


    What did the Assyrian King Sennacharib learn about The Holy One of Israel ? Did Assyrian King Sennacherib capture Jerusalem ?

    2 Kings 19:20-28 LEB => Then Isaiah the son of Amoz sent to Hezekiah, saying, “Thus says יהוה Yahweh the אלהים God of Israel, ‘What you have prayed to me about Sennacherib king of Assyria I have heard. This is the word that יהוה Yahweh has spoken concerning him: She despises you, she scorns you, the virgin daughter of Zion. Behind you the daughter of Jerusalem shakes her head. Whom have you mocked and reviled? And against whom have you have raised your voice and have haughtily lifted your eyes? Against the Holy One of Israel! By the hand of your messengers you have mocked the יהוה Lord, and you have said, ‘With my many chariots I have gone up to the height of the mountains. To the remote areas of Lebanon, I have felled the tallest of its cedars, the choicest of its cypresses. I have entered the place of overnight lodging. Even to the edge of forest of its fertile land. I dug wells and I drank foreign water, and I dried up with the sole of my steps all the canals of Egypt.’ Have you not heard? From long ago I have determined it, from the days of old I have planned it, and now I am bringing it to pass. It shall be turned into a pile of rocks; fortified cities are ruined. Their inhabitants, short of hand, shall be dismayed; and they shall be ashamed. They have become green plants of the open field, and tender grass, green grass of the roof and blight before the standing grain. Your sitting, your going out, and your coming in I know, and your raging against me. Because you are raging against me, and your arrogance has come up in my ears, I will put my nose ring in your nose and my bridle in your mouth. And I will turn you back on the way that you have come.


    Sennacherib's prism boasts that he shut up Hezekiah like a caged bird => https://www.bible-history.com/empires/prism.html


    Keep Smiling 😊

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